It’s one of the most curious things about mankind. For some it’s freedom, for some it’s temporal gain and for others it’s just curiosity…
When it comes to flying, the Wright Brothers, the inventors of the first aircraft, may be thought to be the inventors of the flight.
However, the first vehicles that managed to fly are not planes, but hot air balloons.
It’s very interesting that the idea of balloons came out for the first time. The idea of a balloon was born when Henry Cavendish, who discovered hydrogen, saw in 1766 that this gas was “lighter” (i.e., lower-yield) than air, and in 1767 Joseph Black suggested that a light vehicle could fly when filled with hydrogen. An object should be lighter than air to rise into the air, that warm air is lighter than cold air and physical based on the fact those who find the balloon, French, Joseph Michel Montgolfier (1740-1810) and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier (1745-1799) was the brothers.
The first unmanned hot air balloon flight happened in the village of Annonay with the balloon rising when they released it after filling a bag of silk and linen 10.5 metres in diameter with hot air. The date was 5 June 1783. This balloon was the first vehicle flown by man and had travelled 2.5 km (1.5 miles) in 10 minutes, soaring as high as 450 metres. But the first balloon was filled with hot air, not hydrogen.
Hot air, whose core weight is lower than cold air, rises above cold air like smoke from the chimney. Today’s balloons are designed according to this simple principle. The part that forms the main body of the balloon and is made of fireproof fabrics (called envelopes) is filled with hot air. Under the main body of the balloon is a basket with fuel for heating passengers and air. With a hole at the top of the fuselage called the parachute Valve, the air inside the balloon can be controlled. With the help of the igniter section of the mechanism that heats the air on the passenger basket and the ropes to open and close the hole, the balloon is lowered and raised. When the balloon is asked to rise, the rope running the igniter is pulled, causing the fire to rise by heating the air in the balloon’s body.
It appears in this historical document along with the features of “Du globe aerostatique”.
Preparing a balloon for flight is a simple process consisting of several steps. After the ground crew unpacks the balloon equipment from the containment vehicle, they attach the vertical straps to the basket, and the burners and “envelope” cables to the straps. They then “serer” the envelope and hold the balloon’s mouth open to begin the cold inflationary process with the inflator fan. When the envelope is 75% full, it is still tilted to the side while the pilot burners are activated to transfer propane heat into the victory during the hot air phase of the inflating process. When the air inside the envelope is warmer than the air outside, the balloon is sewn up and secured to the top of the balloon, in other words, by a team member holding a rope attached to its crown.
To prevent leaks from the fabric of the balloon wall, rubber or neoprene is impregnated into the fabric. The envelope of gas balloons is spherical. In order to distribute the weights to be connected equally, the net is passed on. The net ropes join together under the balloon and are attached to a load ring. The basket carrying persons and equipment is hung in this ring. The envelope is not completely closed. In the lower section there is a flat, long and open tube called the mouth or stem. As the balloon rises, the atmosphere decreases to pressure and the gas inside the balloon expands. The mouth allows the expulsion of more of the expanding gas. This prevents the bubble from bursting due to internal pressure. When the balloon begins to descend, the mouth closes itself. This prevents air from entering the envelope and merging with hydrogen to form a flammable mixture.
When a standard balloon is inflated, it holds about 90,000 cubic feet (2,548,515 litres) of air inside. Lift capacity is measured at sea level, when the air temperature outside is 65 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius). Total, i.e. gross lifting capacity 725 kg.’dir. Most of the balloons are about 317 kg when the fuel and equipment needed is loaded and ready for flight. it reaches a weight of; thus 408 kg for passengers.it remains a capacity of. A medium-sized balloon can carry four people at sea level, but when it ascends to higher altitudes, such as mountains, the capacity can drop to just two people.
To air the balloon, the pilot “fires the burner” so that the temperature inside the envelope increases and the balloon is cut off from the ground as this air is lighter than the air outside. The colder and less humid the air outside the victory, the larger the envelope and the less the passenger weight, the easier it is to take off.
Also, a hot air balloon flies just like a kite depending on the speed of the wind.The direction and intensity of the wind is not a phenomenon that can be controlled to give direction to the balloon. Winds at all heights and per minute can cause different reactions to balloons; that is why in the history of aviation, hot air balloons have been replaced by aircraft over time. Directing balloons is not an easy skill at all. Since the balloon is not already in an aerodynamic structure, it is open to external influences. When wind determines the balloon’s course, it is possible for the pilot to choose a direction only by rising or descending towards an air current blowing in another direction: the Pilot allows the balloon to rise by “firing” i.e. by increasing the heat inside the envelope, and the balloon to cool down. If the balloon is asked to descend, the hole is opened with the help of a rope that controls the hole on the top and the hot air is allowed to fly away from the top of the balloon. As the air in its hull cools, the balloon begins to descend again. For landing, the pilot pulls the culvert rope, allowing the hot air in the envelope to drain out of the “manoeuvre culvert”.
For these reasons, balloons are not conducive tools for getting from one place to another. Even very adept balloon pilots can’t quite control hot air balloons. Sometimes the winds can blow in unwanted directions. Therefore, it is generally safer for someone from the team to follow the balloon from the ground with a car and check where it lands. (Zeppelins, which are guided balloons used as means of transport, have engines that allow them to travel by thrust rather than by drag, and rudders that enable them to steer through the air.)
Hot air balloons had served reconnaissance, surveillance and military missions in the past. Today, it is mostly used for tourist purposes. For those who want to enjoy the beauty of the environment, balloons are a very convenient choice to make a peaceful and calm flight in the air. In our country, balloon trips are frequently made in tourist areas such as Antalya or Cappadocia. In addition to these, hot air balloons with different designs of interest for advertising purposes can be seen frequently.