Hagia Sophia Museum History
Hagia Sophia has been able to survive since the history of the world architecture and is in a very important place in terms of architectural art world in terms of its magnificence, splendor, size and functionality. Hagia Sophia is the largest church built by the Eastern Roman Empire in Istanbul. It was built three times in the same place. It was named Megale Ekklesia (Great Church) when it was first built after the 5th century with its current name Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia means sacred wisdom. It was the capital’s largest church during the period of the Eastern Roman Empire and served as a cathedral.
Information About Hagia Sophia Museum
Today, the Hagia Sophia Museum has reached its present state by passing through the stages throughout its history. It is also important buildings before Hagia Sophia, which was built 3 times in the same place.
The first church was built in 360 by Emperor Constantine. To examine in terms of architectural features; The first building, which was covered with a wooden roof, developed to the length, that is, created with a basilical plan, was burned down due to the popular uprising in 404 upon the exile of the patriarch due to the negative disputes between Emperor Arkadios’ wife Empress Eudoksia and the Istanbul Patriarch Ioannes Chrysostomos. .
There is no remains of the first church built today. Emperor II after the fall of the first church. The second church was built in 415 by Theodosios. When this building is examined from an architectural point of view; It was built on a basilical plan with a five-nave, wooden roof and a monumental entrance. It was destroyed in 532 during the great public uprising, which was referred to as the Nika Rebellion in history. Today, architectural pieces of the monumental entrance belonging to this second church can be seen in the garden in the western part of present Hagia Sophia.
When was Hagia Sophia Made?
The construction of the church began in the time of the Byzantine emperor Constantine I. However, in 360, II. It was completed in the time of Constantine. This first Hagia Sophia was devastated by a fire. In 415, Emperor II. It was repaired and reopened for worship by Theodosios. This time it burned completely during an uprising. Emperor Justinian decided to build a magnificent church in place of this completely destroyed church. Its construction began in 532 and was completed in 537. It was built by two architects named Miletus Isidoros and Tralles Anthemius. According to the sources, approximately 10 thousand people worked in its construction.
The materials used in its construction were brought from Mediterranean countries. The columns of the Temple of Artemis were brought to Constantinople and used in Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia, which has reached today, is this building built by Justinian.
Architectural Features of Hagia Sophia
The building, which is famous for its mosaics, is 55.60 m. 30.80.-31.88 m in height and inside. It covers a dome with 40 ribs in diameter. The weight of the building carries 40 columns, of which 40 are below and 67 are on the upper floor. When examined in terms of architecture, a large central space consists of two side spaces (nave), absis, internal and external narthexes. Interior, 100 x 70 m. It is 55 m., and it is carried by four big feet. 30.31 m in height. It is covered with a dome in diameter.
In addition to the architecture of Hagia Sophia, its mosaics are also of great importance. The oldest mosaics are the interior narthex (the name given to the courtyard in the Byzantine churches) and the golden gilded geometric and floral motifs in the side naves. Figured mosaics 9.-12. It was built in centuries. These can be seen on the Emperor’s door, on the abscess, on the exit door, and on the upper floor gallery. In the large mosaic in the upper gallery, where the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist are also represented, the right and left halves of the face of Jesus are represented differently. Although this feature is also seen in the famous work of Leonardo da Vinci, this mosaic in Hagia Sophia is older than Vinci’s work since it was made in the 12th century. In Hagia Sophia, next to the Mevlut reading balcony, the square-shaped area on the ground, which contains circular stones of various colors, is the center of the Earth, as the center of the Earth, has been the scene of coronation by the Byzantine emperors. .
Hagia Sophia underwent various repairs during the Turkish period, which started with the conquest of Istanbul. The mihrab surroundings include the best examples of Turkish tile art and Turkish writing. The famous Turkish Line Kazasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi in the dome is 7.50 m. round plates in diameter are the most interesting. The names of Allah, Muhammed, Ömer, Osman, Ali, Ebu Bekir, Hasan and Hüseyin are written on these wooden boards. On the side walls of the altar, there are plates written by the Ottoman sultans and presented here.
Sultan II. Selim, Sultan III. Mehmet, Sultan III. The tombs of Murat and the princes, the fountain of Sultan Mahmut I, the school of elementary, the imaret, the library, the Sultan Abdülmecit’s sultanate temple, the muqakkithanesi, are examples of Turkish age in Hagia Sophia, the most beautiful of the classical Ottoman mausoleum tradition with its tombs, interior equipment, tiles and architecture. constitutes examples.
Information about Hagia Sophia Mosque and Turkish History of Hagia Sophia
After the Byzantine Empire, Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque after the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Hagia Sophia, which had been worshiping as a church for 916 years until 1453, was glassized with the brick minaret added during the Fatih Period. II. The support walls built by Andronikos (1282-1328) were renewed by Mimar Sinan and the new ones were added and a durable state was tried to be achieved in the building. Ottoman annexes such as mihrab, pulpit, muezzin arch and sermon stand inside the building, 16-17. They are examples of classical marble workmanship of centuries. Two marble cubes seen in the main space of Hagia Sophia, III. It was brought from Bergama in the period of Murat (1574-1595). Kanuni Sultan Süleyman gave his bronze candles standing on both sides of the altar to Hagia Sophia. In 1739, a library was built on the south side of the building by I. Mahmut (1730-1754). The library is adorned with Iznik, Kütahya, Tekfur Palace and Italian tiles from very old years. During the reign of Mahmut 1, the Faculty of Medicine was built in the front courtyard of the building.
There are sultan tombs in the south courtyard of Hagia Sophia. II by Mimar Sinan in 1577. Selim Tomb was built. The small and simple Şahzadeler Tomb, which was built at the end of the 16th century, is thought to be the work of Mimar Sinan. Architect Davut Ağa, III. He added the Murat Tomb. III in the same courtyard. Mehmet Mausoleum is the work of Architect Dalgic Aga in 1608. By the gilded calligrapher Kazasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi, on the round large plates on the walls of the main place of Hagia Sophia, gilded by Allah, Hz. The names of Muhammed, Ebubekir, Ömer, Osman, Ali and Hasan, Hüseyin were written.
Hagia Sophia Museum Visiting Hours
Season Opening Closing
In winter (November 1 – April 1) 09:00 16:45
In the summer (April 1 – October 31) 09:00 18:45
Which Day is Hagia Sophia Museum Closed to Visit?
Hagia Sophia is closed on Mondays in the winter season.
It is open every day during the summer season.