DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF THE CARPET
Turks have a rich cultural treasure due to their artistic and cultural relations with different societies and civilizations. One of these culture and art treasures is Turkish carpet art. Weaving with a pile pattern on top of the warp (arch) yarns is compressed by knotting in different forms with a different pattern thread and passing several rows of weft (slang) threads between them, with a pile face with a pile of fluff at the same height.
The traditional art of the Turks, the carpet has a rightly distinguished place in our art history. Turkish carpet art has been shaped in the flow of Turkish history. The knotted technique, which gives its character in the art of weaving carpet, first appeared in the regions where Turks are located in Central Asia; It continued its development with Turks and was introduced to the entire Islamic world by Turks.
Knotted carpets have a very long history. The discovery of this technique is based on a practical reason, such as the desire to find a thicker and warmer floor of a nomadic tribe. Finds show that the first place where knotted carpet was used was Central Asia. This weaving style, which will gain great artistic value, has emerged in the region where the Turks are located. The carpet found in one of the Pazirik kurgans at the foot of the Altais has technical and decorative features that will direct the experts of the subject to contradictory thoughts. The fact that this rug was made with the Turkish knot technique (Gördes knot) shows that the traditional technique of Turkish carpet art dates back to a very old past.
Turkish knotted carpets were first found in Konya, the capital of Anatolian Seljuks, and Konya became the center of Anatolian Turkish carpet weaving. The most beautiful carpets of that period were woven in carpet looms established in cities such as Kayseri, Sivas and Aksaray. The number of those who have survived from the Seljuk period carpets is very few.
Turkish carpet art in Anatolia has shown a steady and continuous development from the 13th century to the 19th century, and new carpet types have emerged with each development. The first major link of this development chain was the carpets of the Anatolian Seljuk period.
The second bright period of Turkish carpets after Seljuk carpets was XVI. century starts with the carpets made in Uşak and its surroundings. These are the most important group of Anatolian carpets. Sometimes they become very large and richly patterned. The two main types of Uşak rugs, which are very rich, are Uşak rugs with medallions and Uşak rugs with stars. In Medallion Uşak carpets, the sample consists of a large medallion in the middle and fragment medallions at the edges or a variety of medallions. The middle of the carpet is always indicated with a full medallion.
Today, dark colored star motifs are seen on the floor of the Yıldız Uşak carpets, as in the Seljuk carpets. Medallions have become stars and no medium is specified in them. Uşak carpets with these two types of medallions, up to ten meters long; Starry Uşak carpets are made in medium size.
XVI. The bright period of Uşak carpets continues in the 16th century. XVI. In the 19th century, a decline begins, some groups disappear, and large groups deteriorate. In the later periods, Bergama carpets continued with many other motifs from the Seljuk carpets, besides the fine borders.
HAND TISSUE CARPET PRODUCTION
In the world of weaving, the only product that has kept its importance until about 3000 years without changing its basic structure is carpet.
WHERE HAVE THE PILLOWS STARTED AND SPREADED?
Although there is no precise information on this subject, it is noteworthy that the places where the first carpet samples are located and that all carpet centers are located where the Turks live and settled. – Also, some signs such as the names he received in various languages are close to the Turkish name, are strong signs that carpet weaving spread with the Turkish tribes who migrated from Central Asia.
WHAT IS CARPET KILIM?
Rug weaving is done after the chain at the beginning of the carpet and after the towel weaving at the end.
Rug weaving is made with wool, cotton and silk thread according to the carpet type in order to prevent the pile weaving part from spreading.
It is known that Turks used the first carpet in history. The silk carpet in a grave is still exhibited today.
Turkish Hereke Carpets known today as Turkey’s most valuable and precious carpets in the world. The production of Hereke Carpets started in 1843 with the production workshop opened in the Hereke district on the Izmit coast on the idea of laying the Dolmabahçe Palace, one of the world’s largest palaces of the Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecid, with the best carpets in the world. The carpets woven in this factory were woven only for the palace, these patterns and carpets were strictly forbidden to be used elsewhere. In this factory, not only the carpet was woven, this factory, which was one of the first examples of the industrial revolution that started in the early 19th century, was also produced in other textile products.
Carpets woven in this factory were sent to various kingdoms as gifts (Japan, Russia, Germany, England and USA.). Carpets woven here received various awards: 1910 Brussels – 1911 Turin – 1894 Lyon.
The German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II, who visited Hereke in 1894, contributed to the development of the technology used in the weaving of carpets with the chemical dyes that he brought with him, while the mansion where Kaızer was accommodated is still preserved as a museum.
Nowadays, woolen and silk carpets are woven in Hereke, the m2 of the woven carpets starts from 400.000 stitches and goes up to 10.000.000 stitches. Two of the world’s thinnest rugs, Hereke, are made of silk, one was purchased by the Japanese government, and the second is at the manufacturer. There are more than 10,000,000 / m2 of loops in the world’s thinnest carpet
WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF HEREKE CARPET?
There are many features that distinguish Hereke Carpet from other carpets and make it special. We can list these features as using a double knot technique, one being knitted with a thin double weft technique and the cut being made with hand scissors. But its most important feature is that it is 100% handmade. It may take years to make. It is the thinnest and most durable carpet in the world. It is long-lived and inherited from generation to generation. The raw material used is natural, does not cause allergies, and is healthy. Silk and wool used in Hereke Carpet are first class.
The patterns on the Hereke Carpet are the famous Ottoman patterns drawn by the most famous designers of the Ottoman era and now known all over the world.